Infections may act with variable impact on the physiopathology of the reproductive organs, determining infertility or reducing the outcomes of assisted reproduction technology. The aim of this narrative review is to describe the existing evidence regarding the pathogens with a supposed or recognized role in reproductive medicine. Viral hepatitis, as well as HIV, can reduce sperm quality. Syphilis carries a risk of erectile dysfunction and increased endometrial thickness. Chlamydia is the main cause of pelvic inflammatory disease. In relation to Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp., only few species seem to show a correlation with infertility and poor in-vitro fertilization outcomes. There is evidence of a role for bacterial vaginosis in early pregnancy loss. HPV infection in males seems to determine infertility. Herpesviruses are more a risk for fetuses than for fertility itself. Zika virus is responsible for altered early embryo development and waiting to conceive is recommended in suspected or confirmed cases. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 is yet to be elucidated. Rubella and toxoplasmosis can provoke important congenital defects and therefore screening is mandatory before conception; a vaccine for Rubella is recommended. Further and well-designed studies are still needed to better elucidate the role of some infectious agents, to improve fertility and its treatments.