La Marca A1, Giulini S, Orvieto R, De Leo V, Volpe A. Abstract BACKGROUND: In females, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is expressed only by the ovary. AMH is secreted by the granulosa cells of ovarian follicles and appears to regulate early follicle development. AMH is detected in serum from women of reproductive age and its levels vary slightly with the menstrual cycle, reaching the peak value in the late follicular phase. This study investigated serum AMH levels throughout gestation and after delivery in healthy pregnant women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited pregnant women and healthy non-pregnant women, 84 in total. AMH, FSH and E2 were measured in the follicular phase, in the three trimesters of pregnancy and in early puerperium. RESULTS: Estradiol and FSH levels followed the expected patterns during gestation. During the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle AMH levels were 1.9 +/- 0.5 ng/ml. In the three trimesters of pregnancy and in early puerperium AMH levels were: 2.1 +/- 0.56, 2.4 +/- 0.64, 1.95 +/- 0.6 and 2.05 +/- 0.55 ng/ml respectively. No significant modifications were found in AMH levels during pregnancy and in the early puerperium. CONCLUSIONS: This study has obtained information on AMH and on the possible relationship with FSH. We hypothesize that the profile of the new marker of ovarian activity AMH may indicate that initial non-cyclic ovarian follicular activity during pregnancy is not abolished. Moreover FSH, does not seem to play a direct role on AMH synthesis and secretion.